Mario Ettore Giardini

Biomedical engineer

I design biomedical instruments on the frontier between optics, electronics, and medicine. I work on portable and field clinical equipment, medical equipment for challenging environments, sensing for robotic surgery and digital healthcare. I pursue my activity on a global scale, to empower citizens to manage and improve health, live better lives, and to provide a pathway to healthcare equality and sustainability.

Logo of the Italian National Institute for Physics of Matter

1995

Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia

My first job was with the Italian national Institute for Physics of Matter, where I worked first on optical equipment for colloid physics and high-vacuum technologies, moving then onto biomedical instrumentation.

Picture of a small spectrometer attached to a tennis player

2001

IRIS-3

IRIS-3 was a device to measure muscle oxygenation in athletes and cardiac patients. I built it with my students, and the inner workings are covered by my very first patent.

Technical image from a microscope patent

2002

Tracking microscope

In 2002 I patented a microscope for cells freely floating in a liquid, that could lock the image onto the cells, and follow them around.

Photo of a plastic device to exercise brating
Image: Medinet Srl

2002

Respivol

Respivol is a simple and inexpensive device that helps to exercise deep breathing. It is used by patients with lung problems and by sportsmen. My third patent, and my first device to be mass-produced.

Photo of light falling on a test tube and being refracted into a rainbow
Image: Enki Srl

2003

Ki-Beam

Up until the invention of Ki-Beam, when liquids needed to be analysed using synchrotron radiation, they needed to be held in extremely fragile glass tubes. In 2003 I patented Ki-Beam, plastic test tubes that survive the extreme intensity of synchrotron x-rays, more than a billion times stronger than a laboratory source.

Photo of a laboratory microscope by Optika
Image: Optika Microscopes

2005

Optika Microscopes

In 2005 I moved to Industry, as Head of R&D for Optika Microscopes, a leading European microscope manufacturer.

Photo of a fluorescence microscope lit with blue light

2006

Microscopes, microscopes, microscopes

In Optika I designed numerous microscopes, ranging from fluorescence, to biological, to gemmographic units, and I directed the R&D and technical activities of the company.

Photo of a courtyard at the University of St Andrews
Image: Remi Mathis via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0

2008

In Scotland, at the University of St Andrews

In 2008 I moved to Scotland, and returned to aacdemia, with a fellowship at the University of St Andrews, working on biomedical photonic technologies.

Photo of a yellow fingerprint

2008

Nanoparticles in criminal detection

Returning to academia in 2008, my first design was a camera to detect fingerprints on crime scenes. Chemist colleagues were designing nanoparticle-based fingerprint enchancers, to be used in combination with my camera.

Rendering of the arm of a laparoscopic robot

2009

Araknes

In 2009 I joined Araknes, an international surgical robotics collaboration led by Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, in Italy. From Scotland, I begun developing sensors for the navigation of the surgical robots.

Screenshot of an optical coherence tomography scan

2010

Optical coherence tomography

Light can be used for 3D reconstruction of minute details inside tissue. In 2010 I started developing instruments to use this technique for surgical guidance. A few years later, I showed that it can be used to guide delicate neurosurgery.

Painting by Kandinsky

2012

Artificial synaesthesia

In 2012 I developed a technology that allowed surgeons to feel under their hands differences in colour as harder or softer texture, so that they can accurately follow contour lines by "leaning" their scalpel along the colours.

Close-up photo of mobile phone add-ons for ophthalmoscopy

2013

Phone-based ophthalmoscopy

In early 2013 I designed a small plastic clip that fits on a smartphone and allows it to image the back of the eye. The clip was immediately deployed in Kenya in a collaboration with the Scottish National Health Service and with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Within a few months, the study had spread to many other countries around the world.

Tecnical diagram of an integrating sphere containing a cuvette

2013

Sensing cell growth

My last technology developed in St Andrews was a technique to detect bacterial growth with extremely high sensitivity, to understand whether the bacteria are sensitive to antibiotics.

Bird's eye view of the John Anderson Campus of the University of Strathclyde
Image: StrathclydeGuy via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 2.0

2013

University of Strathclyde

In September 2013 I have joined the Department of Biomedical Engineering of the University of Strathclyde, in Glasgow.

Photo of a child wearing virtual reality goggles

2015

Virtual reality

With the availability of low-cost virtual reality goggles, in 2015 I started analysing the applications of virtual reality to medical diagnostics, to present tests as games for children, to replace complex visualisation systems with their virtual counterparts, and to operate equipment remotely.

Logo of The Index Project
Image: Index: Design to Improve Life

2015

INDEX: Design to Improve Life

In 2015, my devices for ophthalmoscopy were awarded an INDEX: Design To Improve Life award, so that they could be manufactured and made available to the medical community.

Photo of a baby

2015

Looking at the eyes of pre-term babies

Very premature babies are at high risk of a blinding disease called Retinopathy of Prematurity, or ROP. In 2015 I patented a handheld low-cost camera for ROP detection.

Photo of a 3D printer
Image: Eva Wolf via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0

2016

3D printing hospital equipment

Getting equipment to field hospitals in natural disasters or war zones can be extremely difficult. In 2016, I started looking at 3D printing to build medical instruments and tools directly inside camp hospitals.

Rendering of an endoscopic capsule

2017

Pill sensors

Sensors can be swallowed and transmit data from inside our body. In 2017 I started a collaboration with a European partner to develop a high-speed data link from pills inside the body to the outside world.

Photo of a healthcare professional using a slit lamp on a patient
Image: NHS Forth Valley, UK

2018

Teleophthalmology

At the end of 2018, in collaboration with NHS Forth Valley, UK, I participated in setting up a service for eye doctors to connect remotely to patients for eye emergencies.

Abstract image of a sound wave
Image: Luis Lima89989 via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0

2018

Sound!

In 2018, following my passion for music, I begun an exploration of digital sound synthesis for mobile medical diagnostics.

Rendering of the Covid-19 virus
Image: CDC

2020

COVID-19

On 24 March 2020 my laboratory entered COVID-19 lockdown. It will remain closed for more than a year. During this period, I worked with the Teleophthalmology Lead of the Scottish Government to set up the Scottish emergency services for eye care.

3D synthetic image of the back of the eye
Image: Ian Coghill

2021

3D imaging of the eyes

As soon as the labs re-opened after the Covid lock-down, I explored technologies for simple and inexpensive 3D imaging of the back of the eye, to diagnose glaucoma.

Rendering of an android head with electronic ear

2023

Synthetic sound

Measuring our capacity to distinguish sound direction is complex and expensive. In 2023 I started exploring digital sound synthesis for the diagnostics of spatial hearing.

Ideadlisation of medical AI
Image: DALL·E 3

2024

Medical AI

Between 2023 and 2024, the rapid evolution of Artificial Intelligence technologies triggered an important reflection on the ethics and governance of AI. In late 2023, I was invited by the Italian Telemedicine Society to coordinate their National Committee on Artificial Intelligence, that gathers medical, ethics, anthropology, governance, and technology experts to examine the implications of AI for telemedicine, and for medicine in general.


stylised image of a door knocker
Publications
  1. open access logo
    Dunn MJ, Alexander RG, Amiebenomo OM, Arblaster G, Atan D, Erichsen JT, Ettinger U, Giardini ME, Gilchrist ID, Hamilton R, Hessels RS, Hodgins S, Hooge ITC, Jackson BS, Lee H, Macknik SL, Martinez-Conde,S, McIlreavy L, Muratori LM, Niehorster DC, Nyström M, Otero-Milan J, Schlüssel MM, Self JE, Singh T, Smyrnis N, Sprenger A. Minimal reporting guideline for research involving eye tracking (2023 edition). Behavior Research Methods 2023; DOI 10.3758/s13428-023-02187-1
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    Ghazala F, Hamilton R, Giardini ME, Ferguson A, Poyser OBL, Livingstone IAT. Live teleophthalmology avoids escalation of referrals to secondary care during COVID-19 lockdown. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2021;104(6):711-716. DOI 10.1080/08164622.2021.1916383
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    Vivas-Mateos G, Livingstone IAT, Hamilton R, Cheema A, Giardini ME. Too many shades of grey: photometrically and spectrally mismatched targets and backgrounds in printed acuity tests for infants and young children. Translational Vision Science & Technology 2020;9:12. DOI 10.1167/tvst.9.12.12
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    Ghazala FR, Hamilton R, Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT. Teleophthalmology techniques increase ophthalmic examination distance. Eye 2020;July (online). DOI 10.1038/s41433-020-1085-8
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    Clark R, Blundell J, Dunn MJ, Erichsen JT, Giardini ME, Gottlob I, Harris C, Lee H, Mcilreavy L, Olson A, Self JE, Vinuela-Navarro V, Waddington J, Woodhouse JM, Gilchrist ID, Williams C. The potential and value of objective eye tracking in the ophthalmology clinic. Eye 2019;33(8):1200-1202. DOI 10.1038/s41433-019-0417-z
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    Jordan KC, Menolotto M, Bolster NM, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. A review of feature-based retinal image analysis. Expert Review of Ophthalmology 2017;12(3):207-220. DOI 10.1080/17469899.2017.1307105
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    Giardini ME, Zippo AG, Valente M, Krstajic N, Biella GEM. Electrophysiological and anatomical correlates of spinal cord optical coherence tomography. PLoS One 2016;11(4):e0152539. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0152539
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    Livingstone IAT, Tarbert CM, Giardini ME, Bastawrous A, Middleton D, Hamilton R. Photometric compliance of tablet screens and retro-illuminated acuity charts as visual acuity measurement devices. PLoS One 2016;11(3):0150676. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0150676
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    Bolster NM, Giardini ME, Bastawrous A. The diabetic retinopathy screening workflow: potential for smartphone imaging. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 2016;10:318-324. DOI 10.1177/1932296815617969
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    Bastawrous A, Giardini ME, Bolster NM, Peto T, Shah N, Livingstone IAT, Weiss HA, Hu S, Rono H, Kuper H, Burton M. Clinical validation of a smartphone-based adapter for optic disc imaging in Kenya. JAMA Ophthalmology 2016;134:151-158. DOI 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.4625
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    Giardini ME. The Portable Eye Examination Kit: mobile phones can screen for eye disease in low-resource settings. IEEE Pulse 2015;6:15-17
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    Bolster NM, Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT, Bastawrous A. How the smartphone is driving the eye-health imaging revolution. Expert Review of Ophthalmology 2014;9:475-485. DOI 10.1586/17469899.2014.981532
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    Ashok PC, Giardini ME, Dholakia K, Sibbett W. Raman spectroscopy bio-sensor for tissue discrimination in surgical robotics. Journal of Biophotonics 2014;7(1-2):103-109. DOI 10.1002/jbio.201300034
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    Krstajic N, Brown CTA, Dholakia K, Giardini ME. Tissue surface as the reference arm in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Journal of Biomedical Optics 2012;17(7):071305. DOI 10.1117/1.JBO.17.7.071305
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    Chianura A, Giardini ME. An electrooptical muscle contraction sensor. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 2010;48(7):731-734. DOI 10.1007/s11517-010-0626-x
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    Levell JW, Giardini ME, Samuel IDW. A Hybrid Organic Semiconductor/Silicon Photodiode for Efficient Ultraviolet Photodetection. Optics Express 2010;18(4):3219-3225. DOI 10.1364/OE.18.003219
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    Biella GEM, Trevisan S, Giardini ME, Probing for local activity-related modulation of the infrared backscattering of the brain cortex. Journal of Biophotonics 2009;2(10):588-595. DOI 10.1002/jbio.200810067
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    Trevisan S, Bavera M, Giardini ME. Portable Instrument for In-vivo Infrared Oxymetry Using Spread-Spectrum Modulation. Journal of Instrumentation 2007;2:P04005. DOI 10.1088/1748-0221/2/04/P04005
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    Battaglia E, Fulgenzi A, Bernucci S, Giardini ME, Ferrero ME. Home Respiratory Muscle Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Respirology 2006;11(6):799-804. DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2006.00951.x
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    Tognini P, Parravicini GB, Fornari L, Stella A, Kofman R, Cheyssac P, Giardini ME. Capacitance-Conductance Investigation on the Phase Transitions in Ga Nanoparticles. Thin Solid Films 2000;380(1-2):230-232. DOI 10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01529-7
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    Sassella A, Tubino R, Borghesi A, Giardini ME, Quadrelli L. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Measurements on an anisotropic organic crystal: potassium acid phtalate. Thin Solid Films 1998;313:347-350. DOI 10.1016/S0040-6090(97)00844-4
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    Mantegazza F, Degiorgio V, Giardini ME, Price AL, Steytler DC, Robinson BH. Transient Electric Birefringence Study of Rod-Shaped Water-In-Oil Microemulsions. Langmuir 1998;14(1):1-7. DOI 10.1021/la970888d
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    Delgado AV, Carrique F, Arroyo FJ, Bellini T, Mantegazza F, Giardini ME, Degiorgio V. Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric and Electro-Optic Response in Suspensions of Charged Rod-like Colloidal Particles. Colloids and Surfaces A 1998;140(1-3):157-167. DOI 10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00274-4
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    Comoretto D, Moggio I, Cuniberti C, Dellepiane G, Giardini ME, Borghesi A. Long-lived Photoexcited States in Polydiacetylenes with Different Molecular and Supramolecular Organization. Physical Review B 1997;56(16):10264-10270. DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.10264
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    Marazzi M, Giardini ME, Borghesi A, Sassella A, Alessandri M, Ferroni G. Optical Properties of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Films Deposited by Single-Wafer Chemical Vapor Deposition. Thin Solid Films 1997;296(1-2):91-93. DOI 10.1016/S0040-6090(96)09376-5
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    Borghesi A, Giardini ME, Marazzi M, Sassella A, De Santi G. Ellipsometric Characterization of Amorphous and Polycrystalline Silicon Films Deposited Using a Single Wafer Reactor. Applied Physics Letters 1997;70(7):892-894. DOI 10.1063/1.118306
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    Comoretto D, Moggio I, Dell'Erba C, Cuniberti C, Musso CF, Dellepiane G, Rossi L, Giardini ME, Borghesi A. Effect of Interchain Separation on the Photoinduced Absorption Spectra of Polycarbazolyldiacetylenes., Physical Review B 1996;54(23):16357-16360. DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.1635
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    Giardini ME, Cristiani I, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. Apparatus for Time-Resolved Measurements of Acoustic Birefringence in Particle Dispersions. Review of Scientific Instruments 1995;66(2):1077-1082. DOI 10.1063/1.1146049
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    Mantegazza F, Giardini ME, Degiorgio V, Asnaghi D, Giglio M. Electric Birefringence Study of Reaction-Limited Colloidal Aggregation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 1995;170(1):50-56. DOI 10.1006/jcis.1995.1070
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    Asnaghi D, Giglio M, Mantegazza F, Giardini ME, Degiorgio V. Kerr Effect from Fractal Aggregates of Polystyrene Microspheres. Il Nuovo Cimento D 1994;16(8):1237-1241. DOI 10.1007/BF02458806
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    Rzoska SJ, Degiorgio V, Giardini M. Relationship Between the Dielectric Properties and the Critical Behavior of the Electric Birefringence in Binary Liquid Mixtures. Physical Review E 1994;49(6):5234-5237. DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.49.5234
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    Degiorgio V, Mantegazza F, Giardini M, Piazza R, Bellini T. Electric Birefringence Study of the Dielectric Properties of Anisotropic and Electrically Charged Latex Particles. Journal de Physique IV, Colloque C1, 1993;3:129-142. DOI 10.1051/jp4:1993112
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    Mantegazza F, Giardini M, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. The Kerr Effect in Aqueous Dispersions of Anisotropic and Electrically Charged Latex Particles. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 1992;4(45):8683-8696. DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/4/45/004
  1. open access logo
    Masetti E, Giardini ME, Ruggeri M, Rovati L. Laplacian-based focus measure allows rapid focus estimation of annular regions in gray-scale images. Proceedings of the IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) 2023 1-6. DOI 10.1109/i2mtc53148.2023.10176114
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    Katsafadou M, Giardini ME. Source multiplexing enhances the number of channels of a multispectral sensor. Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2022) 2455-2458. DOI 10.1109/EMBC48229.2022.9871570
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    Menolotto M, Giardini ME. The use of datasets of bad quality images to define fundus image quality. Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2022) 504-507. DOI 10.1109/EMBC48229.2022.9871614
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    Menolotto M, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. An imaging-based autorefractor. Proceedings of the IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) 2021 1-6. DOI 10.1109/I2MTC50364.2021.9460024
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    Coghill I, Giardini ME. Stereo Vision based Optic Nerve Head 3D Reconstruction using a Slit Lamp fitted with Cameras: Performance Trial with an Eye Phantom. Proceedings of the IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) 2021 1-6. DOI 10.1109/I2MTC50364.2021.9459972
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    Coghill I, Black RA, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. Low-cost eye phantom for stereophotogrammetry-based optic nerve head topographical 3D imaging. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2020) 1604-1607. DOI 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9175326
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    Vivas-Mateos G, Boswell S, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. Screen and virtual reality-based testing of contrast sensitivity. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2020) 6054-6057. DOI 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9175595
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    Coghill I, Jordan KC, Black RA, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. 3D Reconstruction of the Optic Nerve Head of a Phantom Eye from Images Obtained using a Slit Lamp Fitted with Low Cost Add-Ons. Proceedings of the 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2019) 4717-4720. DOI 10.1109/EMBC.2019.8856654
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    Bolster NM, Bastawrous A, Giardini ME. Towards a workflow driven design for mHealth devices within temporary eye clinics in low-income settings. Proceedings of the 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2015) 7312-7315. DOI 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7320080
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    Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT, Jordan S, Bolster NM, Peto T, Burton M, Bastawrous A, A Smartphone Based Ophthalmoscope. Proceedings of the 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2014) 2177-2180. DOI 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944049
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    Giardini ME, Klemm AB, Di Falco A, Krauss TF. Diffuse Reflectance Measurement Tool for Laparoscopic Surgery. Proceedings of SPIE 7715, Biophotonics: Photonic Solutions for Better Health Care II 2010:77150Z1-6. DOI 10.1117/12.854127
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    Giardini ME, Trevisan S. Portable High-End Instrument for In-Vivo Infrared Spectroscopy Using Spread-Spectrum Modulation, Proceedings of the 21st IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 2004:860-863. DOI 10.1109/IMTC.2004.1351197
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    Giardini ME, Guizzetti GG, Bavera M, Lago P, Corti M, Falcone C. Near-infrared Spectroscopy Study of Tourniquet-Induced Forearm Ischaemia in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Proceedings of SPIE 4254, Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III 2001:1-6. DOI 0.1117/12.427938
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    Giardini ME, Corti M, Guizzetti GG, Lago P, Gelmetti A, Danese G. Microcontroller-Based Digital Front-End for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Proceedings of SPIE 3911, Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems II 2000:338-344. DOI 10.1117/12.384921
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    Giardini ME, Corti M, Lago P, Gelmetti A. Portable Microcontroller-Based Instrument for Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Proceedings of SPIE 3911, Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems II 2000:250-255. DOI 10.1117/12.384910
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    Giardini ME, Loconte L, Guizzetti GG, Gelmetti A, Lago P. Simple Instrument for the Chracterization of Diffuse Reflectance. Proceedings of SPIE 3568, Optical Biopsies and Microscopic Techniques III 1998:59-63. DOI 10.1117/12.336818
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    Gelmetti A, Giardini ME, Lago P, Pavesi R, Zambarbieri D, Maestri R, Felicetti G. Preliminary Study of Muscle Contraction Assessment by NIR Spectroscopy. Proceedings of SPIE 3199, Biomedical Systems and Technologies II 1998:61-67. DOI 10.1117/12.301108
  1. open access logo
    Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT. Extending the Reach and Task Shifting Ophthalmology Diagnostics Through Remote Visualisation. In: Rea PM (ed.) Biomedical Visualisation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, Cham; 2020. vol. 1320 pp. 161-174 DOI 978-3-030-47483-6_9
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    Guizzetti GG, Danese G, Leporati F, Giardini ME. An Intelligent Acquisition System for Near Infrared Spectroscopy. In: M.Singh et al. (eds) Medical Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures. Narosa Publishing House, India; 2000. pp. 182-187
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    Piazza R, Degiorgio V, Giardini M, Mantegazza F. Static and Dynamic Electric Birefringence in Model Colloidal Dispersions of Intrinsically Anisotropic Particles. In: S.H.Chen et al. (eds) Structure and Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Colloids and Supramolecular Aggregates in Solution. Kluwer Academic Publisher; 1992. pp. 557-570. DOI 10.1007/978-94-011-2540-6_27
  1. Optical measurement apparatus. GB 2118643.2 Inventors: Giardini ME, Coghill I, Jordan K, Black R. Priority: 21 December 2021
  2. Testing system. GB2110698.4. Inventors: Giardini ME, Vivas-Mateos G. Priority: 26 July 2021
  3. Ophthalmoscope. WO2016151288. Inventors: Giardini ME, Bolster NM, Livingstone IAT. Priority: 24 March 2015
  4. System, devices and methods using an integrated sphere light collector. WO2016128747. Inventors: Hammond RJH, Giardini ME, Gillespie SH. Priority: 10 February 2015
  5. Imaging system and method. GB2016053709. Inventors: Giardini ME, Bolster NM, Priority: 27 November 2015
  6. Muscle Contraction Sensor. WO2015025177. Inventors: Samuel IDW, Giardini ME, Bansal AK, Hou S, Priority: 23 August 2013
  7. Ophthalmoscope. WO2014181096. Inventors Jordan S, Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT, Bastawrous A, Priority: 7 May 2013
  8. System and Method for Manipulating Objects. Inventor: Giardini ME. Priority: 4 May 2012
  9. Fourier-domain OCT. WO2013007967. Inventors: Krstajic N, Giardini ME. Priority: July 2011 (UK)
  10. Spinal Navigation and Spinal Phantom. WO2012153084. Inventors: Giardini ME, Cassar T. Priority: 12 May 2011
  11. Optical Coherence Tomography. WO2011151628. Inventors: Giardini ME, Dholakia K. Priority: 2 June 2010
  12. Optical Backscattering Diagnostics. WO2011124882. Inventors: Giardini ME, Krauss TF. Priority: 9 April 2010
  13. Monolithic Device for Surgical Procedures. Inventors: Di Falco A, Giardini ME, Krauss TF. Priority: 9 April 2010
  14. Optical Detection System. WO2010055308. Inventors: Samuel IDW, Giardini ME, Panday AK. Priority: 14 November 2008
  15. Apparatus and method for obtaining an image of a fluorescent pattern under ambient light. GB2009051627. Inventors: Giardini ME, Samuel IDW. Priority: 1 December 2008
  16. Procedimento per la fabbricazione di microtubi plastici a parete sottile per la realizzazione di provette capillari e strumenti tubolari di laboratorio o medicali, nonchè strumenti ottenibili mediante tale procedimento. Italy TO2003A000433. Inventors: Giardini ME, Di Cecio M. Priority: 9 June 2003
  17. Device for Assessment of Inhalation Flow and Volume. WO2005096933 Inventors: Apolet JB, Giardini ME. Priority: 11 October 2002
  18. Optical microscope able to operate a rapid three dimensional modulation of the position of the observation point. PCT WO2004008218, US 2004/0252370. Inventors: Giardini ME, Corti MV, Botcherby SCL
  19. Apparatus and Method for the Non-Invasive Measurement of Parameters Relating to Biological Tissues by Spectroscopy, in Particular with Infra-Red Light. WO2003014714. Inventors: Giardini ME, Guizzetti GG. Priority: 9 August 2001
  1. Hamilton R, Giardini ME, Painter S, Livingstone IAT. Travel optional for eye appointments? Live teleophthalmology decision support and remote vision testing. Presented at: 44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) - Glasgow (UK) 11-15 July 2022
  2. Coghill I, Jordan KC, Menolotto M, Black RA, Giardini ME. Synthetic stereo images of the optic disc from the CORD dataset. Presented at: 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) - Berlin (Germany) 23-27 July 2019
  3. Katsafadou M, Zimmermann M, Mahmood S, Schostek S, Giardini ME. Optical communications through tissue. Presented at: 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) - Berlin (Germany) 23-27 July 2019
  4. Cameron SF, Giardini ME, Rowe P. Characterisation of a smartphone and sensor-based system for monitoring shoulder range of motion during daily activities. Presented at: 14th Congress of the European Forum for Research in Rehabilitation, Glasgow (UK) 24-27 May 2017
  5. Bolster NM, Bastawrous A, Giardini ME. Towards a Workflow Driven Design for mHealth Devices within Temporary Eye Clinics in Low-Income Settings. Presented at: 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2015), Milan (Italy) 25-29 August 2015
  6. Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT, Jordan S, Bolster NM, Peto T, Burton M, Bastawrous A. A Smartphone Based Ophthalmoscope. Invited communication at: 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2014), Chicago (USA) 26-30 August 2014
  7. Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT, Bolster NM, Jordan S, Bastawrous A. Phone-based ophthalmoscopy for Peek, the Portable Eye Examination Kit. Presented at: 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2014), Chicago (USA) 26-30 August 2014
  8. Livingstone IAT, Bastawrous A, Giardini ME, Jordan S. Peek: Portable Eye Examination Kit. The Smartphone Ophthalmoscope. Poster at: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) 2014, Orlando (USA), 4-8 May 2014
  9. Zhang S, Bansal AK, Hou S, Xie G, Turnbull GA, Giardini ME, Samuel IDW. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: From Controlled Light Emission to Biomedical Applications. Materials Research Society Fall Meeting (MRS) 2013, Boston (USA) 1-6 December 2013
  10. Samuel IDW, Wang Y, Kanibolotsky AL, Skabara PJ, Bansal AK, Giardini ME, Turnbull GA. Organic optoelectronic sensors for security and medical applications. Invited communication at: SPIE Optics+Photonics 2013, San Diego (USA) 25-29 August 2013
  11. Giardini ME, Krstajic N, Ashok PC, Singh GP, Stevenson D, Krauss TF, Dholakia K, Brown CTA, Sibbett W. Photonics for Robotic Surgical Guidance. Presented at: Society for Medical Innovation and Technology (SMIT) 2012, Barcelona (Spain) 20-22 September 2012
  12. Ashok PC, Krstajic N, Giardini ME, Dholakia K, Sibbett W. Raman Spectroscopy Sensor for Surgical Robotics - Instrumentation and Tissue Differentiation Algorithm. Presented at: Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) 2012, Miami (USA) 18 April - 2 May 2012
  13. Krstajic N, Ashok PC, Sibbett W, Brown CTA, Dholakia K, Giardini ME. Tissue Surface as the Reference Arm in Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Presented at: Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) 2012, Miami (USA) 18 April - 2 May 2012
  14. Bansal AK, Wang Y, Giardini ME, Bowman E, Turnbull GA, Samuel IDW. Organic optoelectronic devices for sensing of tissue oxygenation and explosives. Presented at: SPIE Optics+Photonics 2012, San Diego (USA) 12-16 August 2012
  15. Giardini ME, Krstajic N, Singh GP, Ashok PC, Stevenson D, Krauss TF, Dholakia K, Sibbett W, Brown CTA. A Photonic Diagnostic Toolkit for Robotic Surgery. Presented at: Society for Medical Innovation and Technology (SMIT) 2011, Tel Aviv (Israel) 13-16 September 2011
  16. Giardini ME, Krstajic N, Kumar R, Dholakia K. MRI-compatible Intraoperative Photonic Diagnostics. Poster at: Society for Medical Innovation and Technology (SMIT) 2011, Tel Aviv (Israel) 13-16 September 2011
  17. Giardini ME, Cassar TE. A Phantom for Optical Backscattering-Based Spinal Navigation. Poster at: Society for Medical Innovation and Technology (SMIT) 2011, Tel Aviv (Israel) 13-16 September 2011
  18. Kumar R, Giardini ME, Samuel IDW, Dholakia K, Melzer A. Bio-photonic Techniques: Physical Principles and Potential Applications in Radiology. Presented at: Radiology Society of North America 2010 - Personalized Medicine: In Pursuit of Excellence, Chichago (USA) 28 November-3 December 2010
  19. Giardini ME, Singh GP, Stevenson D, Krauss TF, Dholakia K, Sibbett W, Brown CTA. Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Robotic Surgery. Presented at: pHealth 2010 - 7th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano technologies for Personalised Health Berlin (Germany), 26-28 May 2010
  20. Giardini ME, Klemm AB, Di Falco A, Krauss TF. Diffuse Reflectance Measurement Tool for Laparoscopic Surgery. Presented at: Photonics Europe 2010, Brussels (Belgium), 12-16 April 2010
  21. Giardini ME, Singh GP, Stevenson D, Krauss TF, Dholakia K, Sibbett W, Brown CTA. Intraoperative Optical Diagnostics for Robotic Surgery. Poster at: Society for Medical Innovation and Technology (SMIT) 2009, Sinaia (Romania) 7-9 October 2009
  22. Battaglia EG, Ferrero ME, Giardini ME, Apolet JB, Amaducci S. Flow-Volumetric inspiratory exerciser and improving of respiratory functional parameters in COPD patients. Presented at: European Respiratory Society 14th Annual Congress, Glasgow (UK), 4-8 September 2004
  23. Giardini ME, Trevisan S. Portable High-End Instrument for In-Vivo Infrared Spectroscopy Using Spread-Spectrum Modulation. Invited communication at: 21st IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Como (Italy), 18-20 May 2004
  24. Giardini ME, Guizzetti GG, Bavera M, Lago P, Corti M, Falcone C. Near-infrared spectroscopy study of tourniquet-induced forearm ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Presented at: Photonics West - BiOS 2001, San Jose (USA) 20-26 January 2001
  25. Giardini ME, Corti M, Guizzetti GG, Lago P, Gelmetti A, Danese G. Microcontroller-Based Digital Front-End for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Poster at: Photonics West - BiOS 2000, San Jose (USA) 22-28 January 2000
  26. Giardini ME, Corti M, Lago P, Gelmetti A. Portable Microcontroller-Based Instrument for Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Presented at: Photonics West - BiOS 2000, San Jose (U.S.A.) 22-28 January 2000
  27. Guizzetti GG, Danese G, Leporati F, Giardini ME. An Intelligent Acquisition System for Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Presented at: International Conference on Medical Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India), 15-17 December 1999
  28. Giardini ME, Loconte L, Guizzetti GG, Gelmetti A, Lago P. A Simple Instrument for the Characterization of Diffuse Reflectance. Presented at: BiOS Europe 98, Stockholm (Sweden) 8-12 September 1998
  29. Gelmetti A, Giardini ME, Lago P, Pavesi R, Zambarbieri D, Maestri R, Felicetti G. Preliminary Study of Muscle Contraction Assessment by NIR Spectroscopy. Poster at: BiOS Europe 97, Sanremo (Italy) 4-9 September 1997
  30. Degiorgio V, Mantegazza F, Giardini ME, Robinson BH, Steytler DC, Price AL. Electric Birefringence Study of Rod-Shaped Water-in-Oil Microemulsion Presented at: XI Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society, Lunteren (The Netherlands), 14-19 September 1997
  31. Comoretto D, Moggio I, Cuniberti C, Dellepiane G, Lanzani G, Stagira S, Nisoli M, De Silvestri S, Rossi L, Giardini ME. Photoexcitations in different time domains on polycarbazolyldiacetylenes. Presented at: SPIE's International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering and Instrumentation, 27 July - 1 August 1997, San Diego (USA)
  32. Sassella A, Tubino R, Borghesi A, Giardini ME, Quadrelli L. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Measurements on an anisotropic organic crystal: potassium acid phtalate. Presented at: 2nd International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Charleston (USA), 12-15 May 1997
  33. Marazzi M, Giardini ME, Borghesi A, Sassella A, Alessandri M, Ferroni G. Optical Properties of RTCVD Polycrystalline Thin Films. Presented at: E-MRS 1996 Spring Meeting, Strasbourg (France), 4-7 June 1996
  34. Giardini ME, Cristiani I, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. Apparatus for Transient Acoustic Birefringence Measurements in Colloidal Dispersions. Poster and presentation at: Electroopto 94 - Dynamics of Polyelectrolytes, Colloids and Interfaces: Electrooptical Methods in (Bio)Technology and Medicine, Bielefeld (Germany) 4-9 September 1994
  35. Giardini M, Mantegazza F, Degiorgio V, Asnaghi D, Giglio M. Kerr Effect from Fractal Aggregates of Polystyrene Microspheres. Presented at: 1st International Conference on Scaling Concepts and Complex Fluids, Catanzaro (Italy), 4-8 July 1994
  36. Mantegazza F, Giardini M, Bellini T, Degiorgio V, Piazza R. Study of the Dielectric Behavior of Polyelectrolyte Solutions by Electric Birefringence. Presented at: Electrokinetic Phenomena 93, Granada (Spain), 13-16 September 1993
  37. Giardini M, Mantegazza F, Degiorgio V, Asnaghi D, Giglio M. Electric Birefringence Study of Fractal Aggregation in a Colloidal Suspension. Poster at: European Physical Society 2nd Liquid Matter Conference, Florence (Italy), 18-22 September 1993
  38. Mantegazza F, Giardini M, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. Kerr Effect in Aqueous Dispersions of Anisotropic and Electrically Charged Latex Particles. Presented at: VI Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society, Graz (Austria), 21-25 September 1992
  1. Giardini ME. Photonics for robotic surgical guidance. Invited communication at: Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Critical Care - Annual Scientific Meeting 2021 - Glasgow (UK) 17-18 November 2021
  2. Giardini ME. L'esperienza di telemedicina in oftalmologia in Scozia nell'era COVID. Invited communication at: Congresso nazionale della Società Italiana Telemedicina, (Online, Italy), 22-23 October 2021
  3. Giardini ME. Digital technologies to extend the reach of ophthalmology. Invited communication at: Technology Innovations for Healthcare. Edinburgh (UK), 12 March 2020
  4. Vivas-Mateos G, Dodoo J, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. Next-generation ophthalmic diagnostics. Scottish Ophthalmology Club Autumn Meeting 2020, (Online, UK), 30 September 2020
  5. Giardini ME. University of Strathclyde + NHS: engineering solutions for teleophthalmology. Invited communication at: Digital Health and Care Fest 2019, Glasgow (UK), 20-21 November 2019
  6. Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. Ophthalmology with the remote video consultations in NHS Forth Valley. AHP Unscheduled Care, Glasgow (UK) 10 October 2019
  7. Coghill I, Livingstone IAT, Black R, Giardini ME. Phantom eye optical nerve head 3D reconstruction from stereo images acquired using a novel simultaneous stereo fundus imaging technique. Poster at: BioMedEng19, London (UK) 5-6 September 2019
  8. Sabiu B, Giardini ME. Spread spectrum based detection using a sound card. Poster at: BioMedEng19, London (UK) 5-6 September 2019
  9. Vivas G, Livingstone IAT, Cheema A, Hamilton R, Giardini ME Photometric compliance of standard and digital infant acuity tests. Poster at: BioMedEng19, London (UK) 5-6 September 2019
  10. Menolotto M, Jordan KC, Coghill I, Livingstone, IAT, Gilmour K, Giardini ME. Comprehensive Ophthalmic Research Database (CORD): a new framework for open access ophthalmic data. Presented at: Scottish Ophthalmology Club Spring Meeting 2019, Stirling (UK), 22 February 2019
  11. Coghill I, Livingstone IAT, Black R, Giardini ME. Phantom eye optical nerve head 3D reconstruction from stereo images acquired using a novel simultaneous stereo fundus imaging technique. Poster at: BioMedEng19, London (UK), 5-6 September 2019
  12. Vivas G, Livingstone IAT, Cheema A, Hamilton R, Giardini ME. Photometric compliance of standard and digital infant acuity tests. Poster at: BioMedEng19, London (UK), 5-6 September 2019
  13. Sabiu B, Giardini ME. Spread spectrum based detection using a sound card. Poster at: BioMedEng19, London (UK), 5-6 September 2019
  14. Coghill I, Jordan KC, Black RA, Livingstone IAT, Giardini ME. 3D reconstruction of the fundus of a phantom eye through stereo imaging of slit lamp images. Poster at: BioMedEng18, London (UK), 6 September 2018
  15. Giardini ME. Ophthalmic imaging devices. Invited communication at: Scottish Ophthalmology Club Autumn Meeting 2018, Stirling (UK), 21 September 2018
  16. Giardini ME. Phone Based Ophthalmoscopy. Invited communication at: IOP Meeting “Optics in Clinical Practice II”, London (UK), 26 November 2013
  17. Krstajić N, Brown CTA, Dholakia K, Giardini ME. Tissue surface as the reference arm in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Presented at: IOP Half-Day Meeting: “Optical Coherence Tomography”, London (UK), 7 September 2011
  18. Giardini ME. Photonic Technologies for Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgical Guidance. Presented at: IOP Meeting: “Optical Techniques in Clinical Practice”, London (UK), 20 July 2011
  19. Klemm AB, James TD, Di Falco A, Giardini ME, Krauss TF. Integrated optical backscattering probe using plasmonic high contrast gratings for local assessment of tissue oxygenation. Presented at: UK Semiconductors 2011, Sheffield (UK), 6-7 July 2011
  20. Levell JW, Giardini ME, Samuel IDW. Hybrid Photodiodes Making Use of Silicon and Solution Processable Organic Blends for Efficient UV-Visible Detection. Presented at: SID Organic Electronics UK 2009, London (UK) 28 - 29 September 2009
  21. Giardini ME, Oliveri P. Advances in LED Fluorescence: Better Sources, Simpler Instruments, Wider Applications. Poster at: Microscopical Society of Ireland, 30th Annual Symposium, Galway (Ireland) 30 August - 1 September 2006
  22. Trevisan S, Corti M, Botcherby SCL, Giardini ME. 3D Tracking Optical System. Poster at: INFMeeting 2004, Genova (Italy) 8-10 June 2004
  23. Manuguerra M, Brambilla M, Trevisan S, Morini A, Giardini ME, Biella GEM. Neuronal Population Study of Non-Linear Mechanisms in the Thalamo-Cortico-Thalamic Loop. Poster at: INFMeeting 2004, Genova (Italy) 8-10 June 2004
  24. Brambilla M, Panzeri S, Manuguerra M, Trevisan S, Morini A, Giardini ME, Biella GEM. Information Transfer in the Thalamo-Cortical-Thalamic Loop. Poster at: INFMeeting 2004, Genova (Italy) 8-10 June 2004
  25. Morini A, Trevisan S, Brambilla M, Manuguerra M, Biella GEM, Giardini ME. Monte Carlo Simulation of Near-Infrared Light Propagation in a Realistic, Three-Dimensional Human Head and Brain Model. Poster at: INFMeeting 2004, Genova (Italy) 8-10 June 2004
  26. Giardini ME, Di Cecio M, Pinelli M, Corti M, Cantù L. Novel Polymeric Capillary Test Tubes for X-ray Scattering and General Laboratory Use. Poster at: INFMeeting 2004, Genova (Italy) 8-10 June 2004
  27. Battaglia E, Ferrero ME, Giardini ME, Fulgenzi A, Apolet JB, Amaducci A. Valutazione dell'efficacia dell'incentivatore d'inspirazione (Respivol-Medinet) nel miglioramento dei parametri di funzionalità respiratoria e di performance muscolare nel paziente affetto da patologie respiratorie croniche. Presented at: Associazione Italiana Pneumologi Ospedalieri (AIPO) - 5° Congresso Regionale Lombardia 2004, Milano (Italy) 22-24 January 2004
  28. Giardini ME, Apolet JB, Battaglia E. Flow-Volumetric Single-Patient Inspiratory Exerciser. Poster at: INFMeeting 2003, Genova (Italy) 23-25 June 2003
  29. Tripodi F, Giardini ME, Brocca P, Corti M. Laser Interferometer for the Measurement of the Oscillation of Gas Bubbles in Liquids. Poster at: INFMeeting 2002, Bari (Italy) 24-28 June 2002
  30. Giardini ME, Bavera M, Guizzetti GG. Portable infrared spectrometer for high-end in-vivo measurements. Poster at: INFMeeting 2001, Rome (Italy) 18-22 June 2001
  31. Guizzetti GG, Giardini ME, Corti M, Danese G, Falcone C, Lago P. Studio mediante spettroscopia infrarossa di ischemia indotta in pazienti coronaropatici. Presented at: LXXXVI Congresso Nazionale Società Italiana di Fisica, Palermo (Italy) 6-11 October 2000
  32. Guizzetti GG, Giardini ME, Bavera M, Lago P, Corti M, Falcone C. A portable infrared spectrometer for in-vivo measurments of limb oxygenation. Poster at: eeting 2000, Genova (Italy) 12-16 June 2000
  33. Giardini ME, Guizzetti GG, Corti M, Lago P, Danese G. Spettroscopia nel vicino infrarosso per misure di ossigenazione di tessuti umani. Presented at: Convegno NESSO-INFM “Ricerca Scientifica ed Innovazione nella Strumentazione: Sviluppi e Tendenze”, Rome (Italy) 11-12 November 1999
  34. Guizzetti GG, Giardini ME, Zoncada M, Danese G. Spettroscopia NIR per la misura dell'ossigenazione di tessuti umani. Presented at: LXXXV Congresso Nazionale Società Italiana di Fisica, Pavia, 20-24 September 1999
  35. Casavola C, Cicco G, Lugarà PM, Tommasi R, Cassano T, Catalano IM, Pirrelli A, Giardini ME. Non-invasive Optical Oxymetry. Poster at: INFMeeting '99, Catania (Italy) 14-18 June 1999
  36. Danese G, Giardini ME, Guizzetti GG, Leporati F. Dedicated Instruments for the Determination of Biological Tissue Oxygenation. Presented at: INFMeeting '99, Catania (Italy) 14-18 June 1999
  37. Danese G, Giardini ME, Guizzetti GG, Leporati F. Microcontroller-based Digital Front-end for Near Infrared Spectroscopy on Human Tissues. Poster at: INFMeeting '99, Catania (Italy) 14-18 June 1999
  38. Giardini ME. An Instrumental Prototype for in-vivo Measurements of Biological Tissue Oxygenation. Poster at: INFMeeting '99, Catania (Italy) 14-18 June 1999
  39. Giardini ME, Tesoro S, Lago P, Gelmetti A, Cortinovis M, Rossi A, Vitulo P. Caratterizzazione di una sorgente laser a semiconduttore per applicazioni chirurgiche. Presented at: Elettroottica '98: Strumentazione e Metodi di Misura Elettroottici, Matera (Italy) 12-14 May 1998
  40. Sassella A, Borghesi A, Destri S, Giardini ME, Porzio W, Tubino R. Apparato per deposizione da fasci molecolari organici in ultra alto vuoto. Poster at: Convegno Nazionale INFM 1997, Trento (Italy) 27-30 January 1997
  41. Giardini ME, Borghesi A, Dalla Bella L, Destri S, Porzio W, Sassella A, Tubino R. Crescita epitassiale da fasci molecolari di materiali organici. Invited communication at: Convegno Nazionale INFM-GNSM 1996, Lecce (Italy) 29 January - 2 February 1996
  42. Giardini ME, Cristiani I, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. Apparato per misure di birifrangenza acustica in dispersioni colloidali. Presented at: LXXXI Congresso Nazionale Società Italiana di Fisica, Perugia (Italy) 2-7 October 1995
  43. Giardini ME, Cristiani I, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. Apparato per misure di birifrangenza acustica risolta nel tempo in dispersioni colloidali. Poster at: Elettroottica '94: Strumentazione e Metodi di Misura Elettroottici, Pavia (Italy) 25-27 May 1994
  44. Mantegazza F, Giardini M, Piazza R, Degiorgio V. Statica e dinamica dell'effetto Kerr in sospensioni colloidali di particelle sferiche otticamente anisotrope. Presented at: LXXVIII Congresso Nazionale Società Italiana di Fisica, Pavia (Italy) 5-10 October 1992
  1. Giardini ME. Digital Technologies to Extend the Reach of Ophthalmology. Invited communication at: Technology Innovations for Healthcare, Edinburgh (UK), 12 March 2020
  2. Giardini ME. Health is a Human Right. Invited panellist at: Digital Health technology Show 2018, conference and trade fair, London (UK), 13-14 March 2018
  3. Giardini ME. Peek - Portable Eye Examination Kit. Invited keynote at: Re.Work 4th Future Technology Summit, London (UK) 24-25 September 2015
  4. Giardini ME. Peek - Portable Eye Examination Kit. Invited keynote at: Droidcon Tunisia, Hammamet (Tunisia) 7-8 March 2015
  5. Giardini ME. Peek, the Portable Eye Examination Kit. Invited keynote at: Scotland's Universities: Connecting the Commonwealth, Glasgow (UK) 28 July 2014
  6. Giardini ME. Peek, the Portable Eye Examination Kit. Invited keynote at: RNIB Technshare Europe 2014, Glasgow (UK) 4-5 September 2014
  7. Giardini ME, Heyvaert S, Ottevaere H, Debaes C, Thienpont H, Brown CTA, Sibbett W, Dholakia K. Simple and scalable self-referenced configuration for laparoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography. Invited Communication at: Cancer Colloquium VII, St Andrews (UK) 9-12 November 2010
Musings section title
Musings

Building an Italian virginal

Building a clavichord

Cross-country ski tuning

Projects and designs

Portrait photo of Mario Ettore Giardini Portrait photo of Mario Ettore Giardini

Mario Ettore Giardini
Reader

Department of Biomedical Engineering
University of Strathclyde
Wolfson Centre
106 Rottenrow
Glasgow G4 0NW
Scotland
United Kingdom

+44 (0) 141 5483042
mario.giardini@strath.ac.uk

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